Volume 10, Issue 5 (Sep & Oct 2020)                   J Research Health 2020, 10(5): 311-318 | Back to browse issues page

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Ghasemi Rooshnavand J, Bahrololom H, Andam R, Bagheri H. Students’ Health Development: Identifying the Barriers of Trans-sectional Cooperation in Student Sports. J Research Health. 2020; 10 (5) :311-318
URL: http://jrh.gmu.ac.ir/article-1-1822-en.html
1- Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran. , javadghasemi3371@gmail.com
2- Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran.
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1. Introduction
The presence of several million school students is a critical and valuable resource for the Ministry of Education [1]. The health of this large population, as the youth society’s main framework, has a key role in the country’s future development [2]. Educational sport as the foundation of the student community’s sports system is one of the influential factors in health promotion and active lifestyle [3]. Proper implementation of physical education (educational exercise) programs can maintain students’ mental and physical health, shape their body and mind, and provide the basis for their overall development in different areas. It can reduce health and social services costs and decrease the individual and social crimes [4]. 
The nature of educational activities, their insufficient funding, the diverse and varied, need the sports necessitates of all elements in society. It should be noted that schools cannot solve their problems without internal and external collaborations [5, 6]. Even some scholars believe that the base of the success of any country is based on their involvement in education [7]. However, the exclusive community involvement in school affairs is one of the major issues in education in many countries around the world. Public participation in Iran is usually limited to religious affairs, marriages, and the construction of mosques and schools, and it neglects the health and sports of students [8].
Although partnerships can increase productivity and improve working relations [6] in many cases, school participation is viewed through the family’s financial perspective [9] and school officials’ failure to exploit NGOs ‘ potentials has raised concerns. Ivan Rosas found that low income, poor economic condition, parental linguistic and cultural disparities, negative perceptions of parental culture and competence by educators, and so on were the barriers for parental involvement [10].
Some research identified the most important barriers to participation in education, as lack of knowledge of the school’s goals and functions, rapid curriculum changes, lack of parental recognition, failure to adapt programs, and lack of parental time and employment. Being away from school and engaging in daily work, the structure of the country’s education system, the poor economic situation of families, parents unawareness of the consequences, the likely outcomes and associated benefits of attendance at school, and inadequate media publicity promote a culture of school involvement [11, 12]. 
Some research has established barriers to participation, including legal motivational; managerial barriers [13]; administrative, cultural, structural [14]; and intellectual barriers and attitudinal barriers [15]. Developing trans-sectional participation in student sports allows more students to participate in physical activity and understand and promote the benefits of sport in the future among their families and relatives, resulting in more active families. It can also increase the community’s level of health.
The trans-sectional collaboration aims to involve other areas of the Ministry of Education (other than the Department of Education) and the beneficiaries and volunteer forces with other public and private organizations, which is evident in the light of what has been said and the educational authorities’ experiences. Despite the importance and benefits of transactional participation in student sport, its condition is currently unsatisfactory and faces many obstacles. Some blame the country’s educational system, while others blame families’ unawareness of the benefits of developing health education, mistrust, social cohesion, and social gaps in reducing involvement. 
Given the special characteristics of education, it is important to examine the barriers to participation in education, in particular by using experienced students in the field of student sport. A review of studies shows no comprehensive research on student sport participation and the studies so far have focused primarily on overall education and limited to donations and other areas of involvement. Therefore, this study aims to study the barriers to participation in other areas of student sport.

2. Methods
This is an applied and qualitative research and uses the content analysis method. The qualitative content analysis consists of a set of methods used to analyze the written texts of the interview. The study’s demographic population consists of two sections: individuals and resources. The first section included all managers, consultants, and experts in the Ministry of Education (Physical Education Deputy) and physical education experts of the education departments and physical education teachers of Iran in the 2018-2019 academic year. They were under semi-structured interviews for data collection. The theoretical approach was used by purposeful sampling method and data collection continued until data saturation. Each interview lasted between 35 and 50 minutes.
After each interview, the content was typed verbatim and initial analysis and coding were performed in a continuous comparison manner. Although the results from the 10th interview were almost identical and theoretical saturation had reached, this process continued until interview number 14. It is worth noting that the participants have different backgrounds in terms of work, age, gender, ethnicity, work status, and marital status. The second part of the community consisted of related upstream documents, websites, books, newspapers, and various publications to gather and understand the research subject’s theoretical foundations, literature, and research background. 
The qualitative content analysis method was used to analyze the data using MAXQDA software. In qualitative research as well as quantitative research, quality and accreditation of research results are very important and researchers have criteria for evaluating their findings. In this regard, to validate the results of the present study, Lincoln and GABA evaluation criteria were considered [16], including validity (multilevel evaluation), transfer (documentation, and contextual reporting), reliability, and reliability criteria. (using two coders) and verification (expert evaluation outside of the research process and outlining the research process) [17]. Besides, while exploring the case for each of these criteria, some appropriate strategies to meet these criteria are also mentioned in the present study.
This criterion has also been met in the present study using two coders. For this purpose, one of the management experts was assisted in the research coding process and, after the necessary training, three interviews were randomly selected, and coding was carried out by them. In each interview, codes that were similar to the two individuals have expressed agreement and dissimilar codes were identified as disagreement. A formula was used to measure the percentage of agreement between the two coders (twice the agreement multiplied by 100 across the code) [18].
According to the Table 1, the overall reliability between the two coders is 79% and the accuracy of the coders is more than 60%. 


The present study used expert evaluation methods outside the research process and defined the research process. In other words, the results of this study were given to several physical education teachers and used their reviews and analyzed their opinions. This study describes the research stages, including data collection, analysis, and thematic formation to allow audiences and readers to research.

3. Results
To achieve the main objective of this research, 14 experts in physical education, physical education departments in the general department, the staff of the Department of Physical Education in the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Education and Science participated. Their demographic characteristics are presented in Table 2. 


Out of all interviews, a total of 312 initial codes were generated with the help of software; some of these codes have been duplicated or similar. Then, 76 definitions were generated in the open coding system and original and separate open codes were combined. Because of their heterogeneity, the definitions are subdivided into 14 subcategories based on conceptual and semantic similarities. Finally, four main categories of strategic barriers, social barriers, legal barriers, and organizational barriers are formed by subcategories. The key categories and subcategories are listed in Table 3. 
 4. Discussion
According to the research results, one of the barriers to trans-sectional cooperation development is a social barrier that addresses issues such as social negativity, social habits and attitudes, social expectations, ignorance, and interest. The community’s high sensitivity to education and the participants’ and authorities’ pessimism and distrust, the inability of extracurricular forces to enter the educational complex, impede voluntary school activities. These findings are consistent with Yazdanpanah’s findings that consider distrust one of the social obstacles to participation [8]. Matin also explored the obstacles to participation from the beneficiaries’ point of view. They highlighted the drawbacks faced by the authorities, incoordination between the agencies with the beneficiaries, and the lack of confidence in the authorities. These findings are consistent with the findings of this research. [19]. 
Matin adds something that enhances parenting partnerships, i.e., good relationships need to be established with mutual trust, empathy, and intimacy between teachers, educators, and parents. He believes that no meaningful and effective involvement will break the trust wall. This finding is consistent with the findings of this study. Some of the habits and tendencies are rooted in the individual’s culture and religion so they tend to involve the majority of the community in religious or school building. The results of this study are consistent with the research of Bozorgi and Daneshpour, as their recent research suggests that part of what is called social, cultural, and economic issues affecting public participation in education has historical and social factors. 
The way people think and live has changed for many years [20], so the government encourages community participation in the sport by providing the necessary opportunities. In some cases, irrational or excessive expectations from the education community, self-interest and ignorance of the benefits of sport, unfamiliarity with student sport’s problems and needs, and the benefits of participation, prevent trans-sectional participation. As Blake Hurrani points out in an analysis of parents’ lack of knowledge of the goals and expectations of the school and their high expectations, parental involvement is one of the major obstacles [11]. The results of Zanjanizadeh et al. showed that unawareness of the benefits of participation in education is effective in reducing participation [9]. Gohari et al. also suggested that parents’ unawareness of the consequences, probable outcomes and associated benefits of school participation was one of the major barriers to participation [10].
According to the results of the research, another obstacle to the development of trans-sectional cooperation in student’s sport is organizational barriers, which address issues such as job apathy, organizational selfishness, and a rigid organizational chart. Matin and Sobhani Nejad stated that no participation in the structure of the education and parenting association is one of the barriers and shortcomings [19, 21]. Bozorgi and Daneshpour argued that the educational structure is not intended to attract public participation on a large scale. Public involvement requires the specific structure and organization of education and its specific functions. 
Different educational institutions and organizations, such as high-level decision-making and lack of decision-making authorities at the middle and lower levels are the shortcomings of the educational structure that impede participation. The education system is unable to consider plans that address issues. Our education system profoundly emphasizes decision-making and has changed [20].
The findings also showed that strategic barriers such as lack of strategic thinking, various decision-making institutions, inequality, and media bias are the barriers to the growth of trans-sectional cooperation. It is possible to influence parents’ participation through voice-over and advertising and inspire them to invest more in promoting a healthy and dynamic generation. But inadequate radio and television coverage is one of the main reasons for the low level of parental involvement in education. The results of this study are consistent with the results of Aghazadeh’s research on the lack of systematic preparation in the institutions involved as a barrier to participation [22] and with Ghasemi Pouya’s findings on the lack of proper government as a barrier to development [15]. The results of this study were also supported by Gohari et al. with changes in curriculum and parenting, lack of parental recognition and inability to adapt to programs, and lack of proper promotion and culture promotion. Public involvement in schools is cited as barriers to participation [10].
According to the results of the research, legal barriers are other obstacles to the development of trans-sectional cooperation in student sports. They include two parts: upstream documentation and executive conflicts. Some of the rules and guidelines in upstream documentation that provide free training and transfer of sports facilities to the private sector have created barriers to developing partnerships. Also, there are conflicts in the implementation of programs that weaken the sport. In the case of inter-institutional partnerships, although the slogan of the Ministry of Health is first prevention and then cure, in the case of overwhelmed treatment and the budget for a health transformation plan, more money will be spent on treatment. 
However, investing in sports can bring about the health benefits of physical and mental health. In the long run, it will reduce health care costs while promoting community health. The results of this study are consistent with the results of Heydari Fard that considered legal barriers as one of the barriers to benevolent participation in the construction of sports venues [23]. It is also consistent with the results of Aghazadeh’s research, which states that supporting government loans and deficiencies in the free education and government law are major barriers to the development of public participation in school affairs [22]. 
The pattern of formal education in the Islamic Republic of Iran shows that structured and coordinated mechanisms are coupled with spontaneous and common mechanisms and the role of investors in the school is highlighted as well as the potential for active and effective involvement in decision-making in education and education. This action has resulted in a quantitative and qualitative change, particularly in improving the quality of education [24].
According to the study results, there are many barriers to the development of interdisciplinary student sport participation. They are divided into four major social, institutional, strategic, and legal fields, given the need for education and student sport for inclusive community participation. We have a long way to go in achieving cooperation and eliminating these barriers. Therefore, it is proposed that appropriate awareness should be made by identifying the barriers to social and organizational involvement for all individuals and organizations participating in the sport so that concrete steps can be taken to reduce the barriers. 
These barriers should also be addressed by providing legal barriers to lawmakers and strategic barriers to expand public participation in student sports and providing students with more opportunities to provide suitable and standardized sports facilities and equipment. Promoting the health of these people is based on scientific principles, fostering a healthy generation, ultimately making the community healthy and free from physical, psychological, or social harm, and thus saving the country budget on health and drug. The transition from a centralized, non-participatory structure to a participatory structure and flexibility in programs and confidence will, of course, require changes in attitudes and reforms of the intellectual system and improvements in executive procedures in the appropriate timing and compliance with the rules.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

This article received the research project Ethical code of 384882/11/09/98. 
This article was extracted from the PhD thesis of the first author Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education, Shahrood University of Technology. 

Authors’ Contributions
Manuscript preparation, data collection, data analysis: Javad Ghasemi Rooshnavand; Study design, Approval of the final version: All authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.

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Type of Study: Orginal Article | Subject: Health Psychology and Social Health
Received: 2019/09/8 | Accepted: 2019/11/15 | Published: 2020/08/1

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